165 vaccines that could save the world from COVID-19
There are more than 165 vaccines against COVID-19 under development and 27 are now in human clinical trials.
News Corp's National Health Editor Sue Dunlevy takes a look at them and their origins:
UK - OXFORD UNIVERSITY
Oxford University's COVID-19 vaccine produced virus killing antibodies and T-cells and was found to be safe in early human clinical trials in 1000 people. It is currently being tested in 30,000 people to see if it prevents them becoming infected with the virus that causes COVID-19. The Oxford team has a deal with pharmaceutical giant AstraZeneca to make 30 million doses for the UK, 300 million doses for the US and an Indian manufacturing plant will make 1 billion doses for countries elsewhere in the world.
US - MODERNA
Moderna has reported its vaccine produced virus killing antibodies in all 45 people in a clinical trial. On Monday July 27, Moderna began human trials on 30,000 people in 89 sites around the United States to see if the vaccine prevents infection with the virus. Moderna has signed a manufacturing deal with Swiss multinational, chemical and biotechnology company Lonza which aims to produce up to a billion doses per year.
CHINA - CANSINO BIOLOGICS
CanSino Biologics the medical science arm of the People's Liberation Army reported 108 people injected with its vaccine developed antibodies to the virus. However it is using an adenovirus (which causes the common cold) and because this virus is common in the human population many in the trial had a dampened immune response. On June 25 the Chinese military approved the vaccine as a "specially needed drug."
AUSTRALIA - UNIVERSITY QUEENSLAND
A molecular clamp method invented by the university's scientists has been used to develop a COVID-19 vaccine that entered early human safety trials in July. It is working with Australia's CSL which will produce the vaccine.
CHINA - CLOVER PHARMACEUTICALS
Chinese company Clover Pharmaceuticals in partnership with GSK began early human safety testing of its vaccine in Australian volunteers in June.
GERMANY - BIONTECH/PFIZER
Announced on July 1 all the volunteers in the early human safety trial of their mRNA vaccine produced antibodies against the virus that causes COVID-19. On Monday July 27, a trial began in 30,000 people to test if it prevents infection with the virus.
INDIA - ZYDUS
Indian vaccine-maker Zydus Cadila announced on July 3 they had approval for human clinical trials of their DNA vaccine.
JAPAN - ANGES
Japanese company AnGes announced on July 3 they had begun trials on a DNA-based vaccine, developed in partnership with Osaka University and Takara Bio.
US - INOVIO
US company Inovio announced on June 30 human safety trials of its vaccine found no serious adverse effects, and measured an immune response in 34 out of 36 volunteers.
GERMANY - CUREVAC
Curevac launched human safety trials of its mRNA vaccine in June it aims to make hundreds of millions of vaccine doses a year.
SOUTH KOREA - GENEXINE
The South Korean company Genexine began human safety trials of its DNA-based vaccine in June.
US - NOVAVAX
In May, Australians were injected with doses of US company Novavax's COVID-19 vaccine in early safety trials. The company aims to make at least 100 million doses by the end of the year and 1.5 billion next year.
UK - IMPERIAL COLLEGE LONDON
At the end of June, Imperial College London started human trials of its RNA vaccine. Just one litre of its synthetic material will be enough to produce two million doses.
RUSSIA - GAMALEYA RESEARCH INSTITUTE
The Gamaleya Research Institute, part of Russia's Ministry of Health in June launched human trials of a vaccine which is a combination of two adenoviruses, Ad5 and Ad26, engineered with a coronavirus gene.
CHINA - ANHUI ZHIFEI LONGCOM
In June, the company Anhui Zhifei Longcom began human trials in China for a vaccine that is a combination of viral proteins and an adjuvant that stimulates the immune system.
AUSTRALIA - VAXINE
The Australian company Vaxine launched early human safety trials of a vaccine in July.
CANADA - MEDICAGO
Medicago injects genes into the leaves of plants to make vaccines, causing the plant cells to create protein shells that mimic viruses. In July it announced it has begun early human safety trials of a COVID-19 vaccine.
CHINA - SINOPHARM
Has two COVID-19 vaccines under development. It's inactivated vaccine is being tested to see if it prevents infection in the United Arab Emirates. It has a second vaccine undergoing early human safety trials.
CHINA - SINOVAC BIOTECH
Announced in June early safety trials of its CoronaVac in 743 human volunteers found no severe adverse effects and produced an immune response. It began a large scale effectiveness trial in Brazil this month (July) and hopes to manufacture up to 100 million doses annually.
CHINA - INSTITUTE OF MEDICAL BIOLOGY AT THE CHINESE ACADEMY OF MEDICAL SCIENCES
The institute started early human safety trials of a COVID-19 vaccine in June.
INDIA - BHARAT BIOTECH
Its vaccine Covaxin uses an inactivated rabies virus engineered to carry proteins from the coronavirus. Human safety trials are scheduled to begin in July.
AUSTRALIA - BCG VACCINE
The tuberculosis vaccine BCG is being trialled by the Murdoch Children's Research Institute in Australia to see if the vaccine partly protects against the coronavirus.
US AND SINGAPORE - ARCTURUS THERAPEUTICS AND DUKE-NUS MEDICAL SCHOOL
An mRNA vaccine developed by this group was approved for early stage safety testing in humans on July 21.
US - JOHNSON AND JOHNSON
Launched early stage safety trials in humans in July and says it can make up to a billion doses in 2021.
US - KENTUCKY BIOPROCESSING
This company is using tobacco leave to produce a vaccine and registered an early safety trial in humans in July.
CHINA - ACADEMY OF MILITARY MEDICAL SCIENCES, SUZHOU ABOGEN BIOSCIENCES AND WALVAX BIOTECHNOLOGY
This company began early safety trials of its COVID-19 vaccine in humans in June.
Originally published as 165 vaccines that could save the world from COVID-19